Historical overview of kashmir:
The modern state of j & k evolved from the Dogra heartland in jammu as the home of many different ethic groups and a diverse set of culturals . In 1834, ladhak was conquered and incorporated into the state. Baltistan was conquered and annexed by the dogras in 1840.
The valley of Kashmir joined in 1846,when the British sold it to the sikh ruler Gulab Singh for 7.5 million rupees. In 1935,Gilgit was leased to the British for 60 years. The British terminated the lease in 1947.Aksai chin came under the Chinese control in 1962 following the sino Indian War that year. Poonch joined the state in 1936,as the result of a judicial settlement. After their first war over Kashmir in 1947-48, India and Pakistan signed a cease fire agreement on January 1,1949.india and Pakistan went to war over Kashmir again In 1965 and the resulting line of control divided old jammu and Kashmir into four political units.
“Ladakh and jammu and Kashmir Valley, (Indian administered Kashmir).
” Azad Kashmir, (Pakistan administered Kashmir)
“Northern area (Gilgit Baltistan), (administered Pakistan)
” Aksai chin, (controlled by China)
“Kashmir dispute Highlights
State of jammu and Kashmir comprises of valley, Laddakh area and jammu. Historically jammu area has been dominanted by hindus, Laddakh by buddihists and valley by Muslims.
After the first Anglo sikh war of 1845-1856, Kashmir was ceded to the East India company under the Treaty of Lahore and after a short while the British then sold it to Maharaja Gulab Singh for an amount of rupees 7.5 million under the Treaty of amritsar. Gulab singh was succeeded by pratab and Hari singh respectively. The sikh rulers of the state were tyrannical towards their Muslim subjects.
They closed the srinagar JAMIA Masjid, banned cow slaughter and azaan and imposed heavy taxes on the Muslims. Consequently, the first Muslim uprising took place in Doda district in 1931.it was brutally crushed by the Sikhs.
In 1931,sheikh Abdullah formed the All jammu and Kashmir Muslim conference which was later renamed as National conference in 1939.