Impact Globalization on Gender.
The following are the factors which determine the impact of gender on globalization.
(a) Globalization and the labour market.
The extension of the market can have both positive and negative effects for women s situation and gender relations. Positive effects may include increased employment opportunities for women in non traditional sectors, thus enabling them to earn and control income. This is potentially empowering and may contribute to enhancing woman’s capacity to negotiate their role and status within the household and society. Nagitive effects can include increased exploitation and dependency on direct engagement with the market, and particularly on the vagaries of the market.
(b). Globalization and trade in services.
For many countries, trade could be the primary vehicle for realizing the benefits of Globalization. Trade policies affect employment, production, distribution and consumption patterns, culture values, social relations and the environment, all of which engage and affect woman as well as men.
Increases in world trade, particularly in the services, has increased the involvement of women in the various occupation and professions of the services sector. Woman Arround the world have made impressive inroads into professional services such as law, banking, accounting and computing, in tourism related occupations and in the information services including offshore airline booking, mail-order, credit cards, word processing for publishers and so on.
(c). Globalization and governance.
Integration of national economies into the global economy is increasingly shifting the formulation and implementation of policy away from local and national levels to the international level. Increased shift of governance to the international arena may undermine the modernist notion of citizenship, which over the years, provided the woman s movement with a strong ground for advancing their civil identity and claims for equal rights.
(d). Globalization and poverty.
Surveys show that under conditions of Globalization the limits on the state s ability to provide social protection, provisioning of needs and human capital investments have become more strained. This poses a major challenge to poverty eradication programmes and the efforts to responds to the needs of the less visible segments of the population especially woman and children, in responding to their right to basic services and development of their capabilities.