It was in the early thirteenth century that the foundations of the Muslim rule over India were laid with extended boundaries and Delhi as the capital. The economic, political, and religious institutions developed by the Muslims bore their unique impressions.
The law of the state was based on shariah and in principle the rulers were bound to enforce it. Any long period of laxity was generally followed by reinforcement of theses laws under public pressure. It reflected a persianized Islam represented by the turks which dominated the political and social scene in India for centuries.
Islam shaped a New order.
Phases of Muslim Rule in sub-continent.
Muslims ruled most of the Indian subcontinent with brief intervals for nearly a millennium. Their arrival in the region can be broadly categorized in three distinct phrases. The first starting in early eighth century with the Arab conquest of the sindh region where they entrenched themselves up to multan in the north with their rule surviving until the establishment of the Delhi sultanate in the twelfth century which saw an organized movement of conquests and immigration from Central Asia marking the second phase of the Muslim Era in the subcontinent. The third phase involved the mughal period from 1526 to 1858 representing the. Zenith of the Muslim rule in India.
Difference between Hindustan and islam
Hindustan and Islam stood poles apart in their attitudes to life. Islam as a religion, strongly monotheistic and insisting on the equality of human beings whereas hindustan showed extreme flexibility towards God and was founded on a caste system which divided society into privileged and underprivileged. Hindus and Muslims had a different worldview altogether.
They did not take the same view of history, Muslim achievements in the political, social and economic fields were generally belittled by the hindus.
The Muslim culture rooted in the teachings of Islam that developed in the subcontinent over a period of centuries thus created a large new community in this part of the world with its own distinct identity which continues to present a different aspect of human thought and action.