Heading : two Nation theory.
The two Nation theory was the basis of participation of the sun continent. Under British rule, Hindus had organized a number of revivalist movements and were in haste to discard all traces of Muslim influence. Muslims were the most vulnerable segment in this backdrop. Their concern ever since they set foot on this territory was to preserve their faith, their culture and separate identity.
The real significance of this identity lay in the ostensibly special states of Muslims that was seen to rest above all on their pre-eminent claim to power. It flowed from the experience of Muslim dominance in India, which reinforced the idea that an essential part of being Muslim is entailed belonging to, or identifying with, the ruling power, but it also derived from an Islamicly informed discourse that valued power as an instrument in the service of God’s law.
Sir syed was the first Muslim who took this task of socio political preservance, first exponent of two Nation theory in the modern Era. He believed that India was a continent and not a country, and that among vast population of different races and different creeds, Hindus and Muslims were two major nations on the basis of nationality, religion, way of life, customs, tradition, cultures, and historical conditions.
The British won over the Muslim rulers due to the industrial and scientific developments and the modern war strategy. The war of independence (1857) was a shattering setback to the Indian Muslims who were held responsible for the rebellion by the British. The Muslims were put in to the backwardness with the help of Hindus. This was one of the outstanding motivations that paved the way to declare the separate identity of nationalism the Muslim nationalism.
The Muslim scholars sought to reform the teaching of Islamic law and to promote its application in a Muslim society. The prominent name among them is sir syed Ahmad khan (1817-98)who awakened and guided his community well in time. His educational drive, the Ali Garh movement, proved to be the best means of social mobility for the Muslim genrty under colonial rule.